Nephritic syndromes are divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is characterized by sudden onset of painful symptoms, whereas the chronic form takes longer to develop and may go undetected for some time. Both types of nephritic syndromes are painful and result in kidney damage and scarring. These kidney diseases can lead to high blood pressure, dialysis, or even kidney transplantation.
Some medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can lead to nephrotic syndrome. Some infections also increase the risk. When the glomeruli become damaged, they can’t filter blood properly. This results in a loss of important proteins in the blood, which increases the risk of blood clots. As the blood protein levels decrease, the liver begins to produce more albumin, but this can increase the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the body.
Lupus nephritis affects the kidneys. While it does not cause kidney infections, it can impair the ability of the kidneys to remove waste products. Lupus nephritis can result from an infection or injury elsewhere in the body. The symptoms of this disease may include proteinuria or a rash on the skin. Patients with lupus may also develop acute kidney failure.
The two most common nephrotic syndromes are pulmonary makeeover and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Patients with HIV are more likely to develop pulmonary tuberculosis than patients without it. Both forms may cause kidney damage, so it is important to get a diagnosis of either type. In addition to the kidneys, patients may have symptoms of the other nephritic syndromes.